Gibson’s “Passion” a hit in Beirut, Damascus, Kuwait, Ramallah

April 12, 2004

* Yasser Arafat gives the "The Passion" a positive review

* French Education Minister tells French schools to screen "Schindler's List" and "The Pianist" to combat a rising tide of anti-Semitism

CONTENTS

1. "Top Shiite Asks Kuwait to Show 'Passion'" (AP, March 27, 2004)
2. "Gibson film "Passion of the Christ" stirs religious controversy in Kuwait" (AFP, March 29, 2004)
3. "'The Passion of the Christ' a hit in Beirut, Damascus" (AFP, March 27, 2004)
4. "Bootleg copies of the Passion hit Middle East" (Ekklesia, March 25, 2004)
5. "Gibson's next film will be a Bible 'western'" (London Sunday Times, March 21, 2004)
6. "France tells its schools to screen Schindler's List and The Pianist to combat a rising tide of anti-Semitism" (London Sunday Telegraph, March 21, 2004)
7. "'Peace Religion' Islam Rapes, Kills Christians" (Michigan News, March 26, 2004)



[Note by Tom Gross]

This dispatch is a follow-up to "What's popcorn in Aramaic?" (March 4, 2004) and other previous dispatches on Mel Gibson's film "The Passion of the Christ". I attach 7 articles, with summaries first. Most of the articles concern reaction to the film in Arab countries. There is also an article about the ongoing ethnic cleansing and mass rape in the Sudan, carried out by Arab militias against Black Christians, which is being ignored by most of the world media; and an article about French government plans to screen "Schindler's List" and "The Pianist" in high schools to combat a rising tide of anti-Semitism.

"The Passion" opens tomorrow (March 31) in movie theaters in Cairo and in the United Arab Emirates, and has been available to movie goers in Qatar since last Sunday. The Palestinian "president" Yasser Arafat saw the film at his headquarters in Ramallah on the West Bank and pronounced it "moving".

The film is also scheduled to open tomorrow in France, though three Jewish brothers have appealed to a French court to have the film banned because it "incites racial hatred." Archbishop Lustiger of Paris, who saw the film last week, told the Catholic TV channel KTO that the film was "sadistic" and urged people not to view it.

Meanwhile, "The Passion" continues to have great success in the US. For the fourth week running a picture book (a collection of still photographs taken on location during the filming of the Passion) is the number two book on the New York Times bestsellers list. It is unusual for a picture book to appear so high on the list.

On Sunday (March 28), on the film page of the arts section of the New York Times, a selection of supposedly random quotes by filmgoers was presented. In the middle of the top of the page, the Times ran a quote by "Terry Pannu, Engineer, vacationing from London, aged 52" (together with his photo) saying: "I thought I'd better see it [the film] in New York, because they'll cut it when it's shown in London... I think the Jews were very cruel to Christ. Gibson showed the reality for the first time."

-- Tom Gross

 

SUMMARIES

1. "Top Shiite Asks Kuwait to Show 'Passion'" (The Associated Press, March 27, 2004). "A top Shiite cleric on Saturday urged Kuwait to let Mel Gibson's controversial film "The Passion of the Christ," be shown in this conservative Muslim state because it "reveals crimes committed by Jews against Christ." "We have called on the information minister to show this movie," Ayatollah Mohammed Baqer al-Mehri told The Associated Press. He heads the congregation of Shiite clerics in Kuwait... Al-Mehri said Sunni Muslims, who control Kuwaiti politics, do not approve of personalizing prophets in movies, but many senior Shiite clerics do not object... Religious Christian films are not shown in this traditional Muslim country, but pirated copies of Gibson's latest movie are being circulated..."

 

2. "Gibson film "Passion of the Christ" stirs religious controversy in Kuwait" (Agence France Presse, March 29, 2004). "Mel Gibson's film "The Passion of the Christ" has stirred a religious controversy in Kuwait between majority Sunni Muslims who oppose the movie and the emirate's Shiite Muslims who call for showing it... The dean of the local Islamic college, Mohammad al-Tabtabai, said in a fatwa, or religious edict, Monday that parts of the controversial movie contradict the Muslim faith, in addition to its depiction of Jesus... But the emirate's leading Shiite cleric Ayatollah Mohammad Baqer al-Muhri said there was nothing wrong in showing the film and called on the authorities to approve it. "It's a good opportunity to reveal the crimes committed by Jews against the Christ and many other prophets," Muhri told AFP... The film is, however, already being sold on the black market..."

 

3. "'The Passion of the Christ' a hit in Beirut, Damascus" (Agence France Presse, March 27, 2004) "Mel Gibson's controversial film "The Passion of the Christ," accused by some Jewish organizations of encouraging anti-Semitism, is drawing a sizeable if unexceptional audience here while apparently touching an emotional nerve in the Syrian capital, Damascus. "Coming out of the theater ... I saw a lot of people in tears," reported Fayez Wehbe, who saw the film -- with Arabic sub-titles -- in Damascus... Given its popularity in Damascus a fourth showing has been added to the three that had been initially offered, with people often buying tickets in the morning to be sure of getting a place.

 

4. "Bootleg copies of the Passion hit Middle East" (Ekklesia, March 25, 2004). "Pirated DVDs of Mel Gibson's "The Passion of The Christ" have hit the streets of the Middle East and are selling like hot cakes, according to street vendors... The film is already being sold outside of supermarkets, and out of the trunk of cars for the price of SR 30 or less. A copy obtained by Arab News was reportedly of high quality..."

 

5. "Gibson's next film will be a Bible 'western'" (London Sunday Times, March 21, 2004). "As The Passion of the Christ bursts on to 300 British cinema screens this week Mel Gibson, its writer, producer and director, is heading for a row with the Jewish community over his next project. He is planning to film the story of the Maccabees, a tribe that led the Jews in revolt against their Syrian overlords 165 years before Jesus was born. Their victory in reconsecrating the temple of Jerusalem is celebrated every December in the festival of Hanukkah.

Jewish leaders fear that Gibson, who may postpone a fourth Mad Max film to make The Maccabees, has likened them to ranchers from the Wild West. "They made war. They stuck by their guns and they came out winning. It's like a western," Gibson said last week. Abraham H Foxman, director of the Anti-Defamation League which was set up in America in 1913 to fight anti-semitism, said: "Thanks for trying to make it up to us, but no thanks. The last thing we need is Jewish history turned into a western."

... Gibson has been at odds with Jewish activists since he refused to break with his 85-year-old father over the latter's anti-semitic remarks. Hutton Gibson had claimed in February that the Jews had fabricated the Holocaust and were planning to take over the world.

... There was further controversy last night after the film was seen by Yasser Arafat, the Palestinian leader. Later, an aide compared the Palestinians' pain during their fighting with Israel to the suffering of Christ.

A member of a Catholic fundamentalist splinter group, Gibson has problems as a result of his own faith. Last month he said he expected Robyn, his "saintly" London-born wife and the mother of his seven children, to go to hell because she belonged to the Church of England. "It's not fair, but that's a pronouncement from the chair," he said. "I go with it."

... Two years ago Hollywood studios refused to fund The Passion of the Christ, fearing it would be a box-office flop. Gibson put up 20m of his own money to shoot it in Rome last year. He is expected to make a profit of up to 500m..."

 

6. "France tells its schools to screen Schindler's List and The Pianist to combat a rising tide of anti-Semitism" (London Sunday Telegraph, March 21, 2004). "The French government has told schools and colleges to screen films such as Schindler's List, Sophie's Choice and The Pianist to combat growing anti-Semitism. After a 10-fold rise in attacks and threats against Jews in France in the past decade, Luc Ferry, the education minister, said it was vital to fight racism among young people. "For the first time since the Second World War, anti-Semitism is now more widespread than racism that is not directed against Jews," he said last week. "We cannot act as if this didn't exist. We cannot not respond to it."

... Last week, arsonists set fire to a Jewish centre in Toulon, shortly after Israel assassinated the Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. It was the latest in a series of attacks on Jewish sites, including synagogues, graveyards and lycees.

... Mr Ferry said teachers had reported being abused by young Muslims while trying to teach about the Holocaust. He described how one teacher asked a class of 13-year-old pupils about their likes and dislikes. One child wrote: "I like football, I don't like Jews."

 

7. "'Peace Religion' Islam Rapes, Kills Christians" (Michigan News, March 26, 2004). "All houses as well as a market and a health center were completely looted and the market burnt," UN coordinator Mudesh Kapila said. "Over 100 women were raped, six in front of their fathers who were later killed.

"This is ethnic cleansing, this is the world's greatest humanitarian crisis, and I don't know why the world isn't doing more about it," he told BBC Radio 4's Today program... Islam killers supported by Khartoum's vicious Muslim politic "raped more than 100 woman in an attack in western Sudan." The village of Tawila suffered 75 humans slaughtered in the blood letting. One hundred fifty women plus 200 youngsters were kidnapped while the villages were leveled.

Over one hundred thousand fled from Sudan to nearby Chad, leaving their belongings behind. Still, the enemy crossed the borders and ravaged the victims... The "cleric-backed National Islamic Front regime in the Arab and Muslim north" sought out the Christians for the slaughter... Since 1983, over 2 million people have died because of battle and starvation. Nearly 5 million have lost their homes, accounted as refugees. Before Christian women were raped, they were called on to deny their faith. Even then, they were gang-raped, sometimes slain..."

 



FULL ARTICLES

TOP SHIITE ASKS KUWAIT TO SHOW 'PASSION'

Top Shiite Asks Kuwait to Show 'Passion'
The Associated Press
March 27, 2004

A top Shiite cleric on Saturday urged Kuwait to let Mel Gibson's controversial film "The Passion of the Christ," be shown in this conservative Muslim state because it "reveals crimes committed by Jews against Christ."

"We have called on the information minister to show this movie," Ayatollah Mohammed Baqer al-Mehri told The Associated Press. He heads the congregation of Shiite clerics in Kuwait.

Movie theaters in this small oil-rich state are owned by a state company, and the Information Ministry has to censor and approve films to be screened. It is not known if the movie company had approached the ministry for permission to screen it.

Al-Mehri said Sunni Muslims, who control Kuwaiti politics, do not approve of personalizing prophets in movies, but many senior Shiite clerics do not object.

It was not immediately clear if the Kuwaiti government had banned the movie from Kuwaiti cinema screens. Kuwaiti officials were not immediately available for comment.

Religious Christian films are not shown in this traditional Muslim country, but pirated copies of Gibson's latest movie, which depicts the last hours Jesus' life, are being circulated.

Al-Mehri said he has seen the movie and believes it is "good and there is nothing wrong with it."

Jewish organizations, however, have denounced the film as anti-Semitic and expressed fears that it would cause attacks on Jews.

Muslims view Jesus as a prophet, not as a messiah.

 

GIBSON FILM "PASSION OF THE CHRIST" STIRS RELIGOUS CONTROVERSY IN KUWAIT

Gibson film "Passion of the Christ" stirs religious controversy in Kuwait
AFP
March 29, 2004

Mel Gibson's film "The Passion of the Christ" has stirred a religious controversy in Kuwait between majority Sunni Muslims who oppose the movie and the emirate's Shiite Muslims who call for showing it.

The authorities, meanwhile, have not decided either way.

The dean of the local Islamic college, Mohammad al-Tabtabai, said in a fatwa, or religious edict, Monday that parts of the controversial movie contradict the Muslim faith, in addition to its depiction of Jesus.

Tabtabai went so far as to outlaw the film's screening by any Muslim country and prohibited Muslims from watching it, saying anyone who has seen the movie must "repent".

But the emirate's leading Shiite cleric Ayatollah Mohammad Baqer al-Muhri said there was nothing wrong in showing the film and called on the authorities to approve it.

"It's a good opportunity to reveal the crimes committed by Jews against the Christ and many other (religious) prophets," Muhri told AFP.

"We sincerely respect the Jewish religion and Jews, but not the Jewish Zionists, and we believe in Jesus and Moses like we believe in our own prophet," he added.

Muslims believe that Jesus was a prophet like the Prophet Mohammad but, contrary to Christians, they believe God saved him from crucifixion.

They also believe Jesus will return to earth before the Day of Judgement to guide the faithful.

Kuwait, where all forms of art production must be censored by the information ministry, has not yet decided whether to publicly screen the film or not. Kuwaiti law bars scenes or images depicting prophets, Muslim caliphs and revered figures.

Several Arab countries, including the Gulf Arab states of Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates and Qatar, have already given the film the green light.

The state national cinema company, which has a monopoly over all cinemas in Kuwait, has not purchased the film and is apparently waiting for a decision from the information ministry.

The film is, however, already being sold on the black market.

The movie, which depicts the last 12 hours of Jesus Christ's life in often graphic and brutal detail, has drawn a storm of criticism as it reaches cinemas worldwide after its release in the United States.

Gibson's film, shot in Latin and Aramaic using little-known actors, has been a huge box-office hit in North America.

 

"THE PASSION OF THE CHRIST" A HIT IN BEIRUT, DAMASCUS

"The Passion of the Christ" a hit in Beirut, Damascus
AFP
March 27, 2004

Mel Gibson's controversial film "The Passion of the Christ," accused by some Jewish organizations of encouraging anti-Semitism, is drawing a sizeable if unexceptional audience here while apparently touching an emotional nerve in the Syrian capital, Damascus.

"Coming out of the theater ... I saw a lot of people in tears," reported Fayez Wehbe, who saw the film -- with Arabic sub-titles -- in Damascus.

Certain sequences are in Aramaic, the language that was dominant in the Holy Land at the time of Christ and which can still be heard in certain towns in Syria, notably Maalula and Saadnaya near Damascus.

"Some members of the audience could not conceal their astonishment on hearing some expressions -- such as Ya Illah (My God) -- that are close to Arabic," said Wehbe.

Added another Syrian cinema-goer: "The fact that this film is being shown in the current Middle East context, which opposes Israel and the Arabs, explains part of its success."

Given its popularity in Damascus a fourth showing has been added to the three that had been initially offered, with people often buying tickets in the morning to be sure of getting a place.

The film has spawned reams of commentary because of its unflinchingly graphic portrayal of Christ's crucifixion. In some quarters it has been seen as promoting anti-Semitism by a negative depiction of Christ's fellow Jews, while that view has been strongly rejected in others.

Here in Beirut, the film has been warmly received. Lebanon's Maronite church has described it as "impressive" and found it not to be anti-Semitic.

"It is very sad, extremely impressive," commented Cardinal Nasrallah Sfeir, the spiritual head of the Maronite church.

"We don't see any anti-Semitism there."

An official from one of Beirut's larger movie houses said "the public has come in strong numbers to see 'The Passion' but it has not been an exceptional rush."

North of the capital, in the heavily Christian Junieh region, the film is selling well, although it is off limits to youths under the age of 15.

Elsewhere in the Arab world, Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat saw the film at his headquarters in Ramallah on the West Bank and pronounced it "moving."

"The Passion of the Christ" will also be shown in Cairo, where it is likewise forbidden to minors because of its violent scenes, starting March 31, and has been available to movie goers in the Gulf state of Qatar since last Sunday.

"We submitted 'The Passion of the Christ' to the censorship committee, which had no objection to its screening" in Qatar, said Abdul Rahman Mohsen, the director general of a private Qatari cinema company.

The committee usually censors scenes or images depicting prophets from the holy books.

The film is being shown three times a day in a cinema in Doha and will be screened for at least one month, Mohsen said.

Three other Gulf states are currently still reviewing the film, he said.

The movie will be shown to the public in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) beginning March 31 after having been given the green light by the ministry of culture and information, the UAE's Gulf News reported Sunday.

 

BOOTLEG COPIES OF THE PASSION HIT MIDDLE EAST

Bootleg copies of the Passion hit Middle East
Ekklesia
March 25, 2005

www.ekklesia.co.uk/content/news_syndication/article_040325pass.shtml

Pirated DVDs of Mel Gibson's "The Passion of The Christ" have hit the streets of the Middle East and are selling like hot cakes, according to street vendors.

The film, which is released in the UK this week, and has faced charges of anti-Semitism, is already being sold outside of supermarkets, and out of the trunk of cars for the price of SR 30 or less. A copy obtained by Arab News was reportedly of high quality.

A street vendor said on condition of anonymity vendors underestimated demand for the movie because the dialogue is in Latin and ancient Aramaic rather than English. "My customers don't like subtitled movies, but they are buying this one."

"A majority of these DVDs come from the Far East by way of GCC states," he said. "Pirated CDs and DVDs of latest movies are often available in Jeddah weeks before the films are even released in the United States."

Mel Gibson's movie company, Icon, is suing a Hollywood post-production company claiming bad security allowed three employees to copy the film.

The bootlegs eventually turned up online and on the black market.

According to the 2003 International Intellectual Property Alliance report, "Saudi Arabia should remain on the watch list. The piracy situation in Saudi Arabia continued to improve for most sectors in 2002 ,with cooperation from the Ministry of Information and sustained raiding that has eaten into piracy rates for the motion picture and business software industries."

 

GIBSON'S NEXT FILM WILL BE A BIBLE 'WESTERN'

Gibson's next film will be a Bible 'western'
By John Harlow and Maurice Chittenden
London Sunday Times
March 21, 2004

As The Passion of the Christ bursts on to 300 British cinema screens this week Mel Gibson, its writer, producer and director, is heading for a row with the Jewish community over his next project.

He is planning to film the story of the Maccabees, a tribe that led the Jews in revolt against their Syrian overlords 165 years before Jesus was born. Their victory in reconsecrating the temple of Jerusalem is celebrated every December in the festival of Hanukkah.

Jewish leaders fear that Gibson, who may postpone a fourth Mad Max film to make The Maccabees, has likened them to ranchers from the Wild West.

"They made war. They stuck by their guns and they came out winning. It's like a western," Gibson said last week.

Abraham H Foxman, director of the Anti-Defamation League which was set up in America in 1913 to fight anti-semitism, said: "Thanks for trying to make it up to us, but no thanks. The last thing we need is Jewish history turned into a western. In his hands we would probably lose."

Gibson has been at odds with Jewish activists since he refused to break with his 85-year-old father over the latter's anti-semitic remarks. Hutton Gibson had claimed in February that the Jews had fabricated the Holocaust and were planning to take over the world.

Gibson has been accused of promoting anti-semitism because the film shows Jews conspiring to kill Jesus. He denies this and says he removed a New Testament line from a Jewish priest that the "blood of Christ be on us and all our children".

There was further controversy last night after the film was seen by Yasser Arafat, the Palestinian leader. Later, an aide compared the Palestinians' pain during their fighting with Israel to the suffering of Christ.

A member of a Catholic fundamentalist splinter group, Gibson has problems as a result of his own faith. Last month he said he expected Robyn, his "saintly" London-born wife and the mother of his seven children, to go to hell because she belonged to the Church of England. "It's not fair, but that's a pronouncement from the chair," he said. "I go with it."

Two years ago Hollywood studios refused to fund The Passion of the Christ, fearing it would be a box-office flop. Gibson put up 20m of his own money to shoot it in Rome last year. He is expected to make a profit of up to 500m.

The film is already more than a blockbuster. Americans queued before dawn for the first shows and some went into hysterics during the prolonged whipping scenes. A Kansas woman died of a heart attack and a bank robber gave himself up after seeing the film in Florida.

The explicit violence of The Passion has led to widespread discussion on websites run by teenage horror film fans. In American high schools it is regarded as a challenge for girls to watch it without shutting their eyes.

The film's distributors decided not to hold a gala premiere in Britain. Zak Brilliant, its British publicist, said: "It doesn't lend itself to having a big party of VIPs walking down a red carpet. It would be in bad taste."

In America the film took more money than The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King during its five-day opening weekend. More than a dozen churches in Britain are giving away tickets.

Some church leaders have criticised the decision to give the film an 18 rating in Britain. Sue Clark of the British Board of Film Classification said: "We did look to see if we could make an exception but all there is is pain and suffering. There was never any question of Mel Gibson accepting cuts."

Cosmo Landesman, who will review the film in next week's Sunday Times, said: "It's a bloody feast, like a human pizza. It's really horrible. You have to be mad or a Christian fundamentalist who is moved by the spectacle of Christ suffering, or you are going to find it difficult to watch."

 

FRENCH SCHOOLS TO SCREEN SCHINDLERS LIST AND THE PANIO TO COMBAT ANTI-SEMITISM

France tells its schools to screen Schindlers List and The Piano to combat a rising tide of anti-Semitism
By Kim Willsher in Paris
London Sunday Telegraph
March 28, 2004

The French government has told schools and colleges to screen films such as Schindler's List, Sophie's Choice and The Pianist to combat growing anti-Semitism.

After a 10-fold rise in attacks and threats against Jews in France in the past decade, Luc Ferry, the education minister, said it was vital to fight racism among young people.

"For the first time since the Second World War, anti-Semitism is now more widespread than racism that is not directed against Jews," he said last week. "We cannot act as if this didn't exist. We cannot not respond to it."

The advice is included in a government guide, The Republican Idea Today, that will be sent to 300,000 schools and colleges teaching "civil education" classes as part of the national curriculum.

The guide also recommends visits to former Nazi concentration camps, books such as The Diary of Anne Frank and documentaries depicting the Holocaust.

Mr Ferry said: "When you see a film like Schindler's List you are clearly very moved. You understand much better the reality of racism and anti-Semitism than if you're asked to read, for example, the Declaration of the Rights of Man."

The government has linked the surge in attacks on Jews over the past three years with the deteriorating situation in the Middle East.

Last week, arsonists set fire to a Jewish centre in Toulon, shortly after Israel assassinated the Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin. It was the latest in a series of attacks on Jewish sites, including synagogues, graveyards and lycees.

France has the largest Muslim population - estimated at between 4 million and5 million - in Western Europe.

Mr Ferry said teachers had reported being abused by young Muslims while trying to teach about the Holocaust. He described how one teacher asked a class of 13-year-old pupils about their likes and dislikes. One child wrote: "I like football, I don't like Jews."

One prominent rabbi has advised Jewish schoolchildren in Paris who received abuse and threats from Muslim youths to wear baseball hats to cover their skullcaps.

Mr Ferry said that young people used racist insults such as "dirty Jew" or "dirty wog" as frequently as other people said "idiot" or "fool".

He added: "It's extremely serious. These words have become banal, light as feathers, when in fact they have a very serious history. The sole purpose of this guide is to give weight back to these words; to make pupils understand that these insults have killed."

He said the guide was intended to make pupils reflect on racism, the Second World War, crimes against humanity, battles for the dignity of man, and social conflicts.

The minister said that extreme racism and anti-Semitism had infected only five per cent of schools in France, but that in society as a whole, there had been a dramatic rise in recent years.

During the 1990s, about 10 violent anti-Semitic attacks and 60 verbal threats were reported against Jews every year. By 2002, these figures had risen to 193 attacks and 731 threats, the worst in France since the 1940s.

Mr Ferry blamed tensions between Muslim and Jewish pupils. "If we have such a rise in anti-Semitism in France it is because some children identify with the Palestinian cause and others with Israel," he said.

The guide also includes details of the laws that teachers can refer to when confronted with racist acts. "It is necessary to intervene in the slightest incident - even a verbal attack - and not let any of these things pass without punishment or explanation," said Mr Ferry.

 

'PEACE RELIGION' ISLAM RAPES / KILLS CHRISTIANS

'Peace Religion' Islam Rapes / Kills Christians
By J. Grant Swank, Jr.
Michigan News
March 22, 2004

"All houses as well as a market and a health center were completely looted and the market burnt," UN coordinator Mudesh Kapila said. "Over 100 women were raped, six in front of their fathers who were later killed.

"This is ethnic cleansing, this is the world's greatest humanitarian crisis, and I don't know why the world isn't doing more about it," he told BBC Radio 4's Today program.

According to WorldNetDaily, Islam killers supported by Khartoum's vicious Muslim politic "raped more than 100 woman in an attack in western Sudan."

The village of Tawila suffered 75 humans slaughtered in the blood letting.

One hundred fifty women plus 200 youngsters were kidnapped while the villages were leveled.

Over one hundred thousand fled from Sudan to nearby Chad, leaving their belongings behind. Still, the enemy crossed the borders and ravaged the victims.

Kapila appealed to the world for aid, immediate assistance, hoping to see an end to the carnage.

And who are these attacked, raped, murdered, set fleeing in hope of safety? They are mostly Christians. The "cleric-backed National Islamic Front regime in the Arab and Muslim north" sought out the Christians for the slaughter.

Go back to 1983. Since then, over 2 million people have died because of battle and starvation. Nearly 5 million have lost their homes, accounted as refugees.

Before Christian women were raped, they were called on to deny their faith. Even then, they were gang-raped, sometimes slain. The rapists were a part of the Khartoum regime.

Kapila reported that he lived through the Rwanda slaughter, but what's happening to the Christians put him in "total shock."


All notes and summaries copyright © Tom Gross. All rights reserved.