An Englishman in Auschwitz and other Holocaust articles

June 18, 2003

* "Romania denies Holocaust," "Rome Imam suspended after praising suicide bombers," "unwelcome Jews (in Vienna)," and other stories from Europe

 

CONTENTS

1. Headline in Yediot Ahronot (Israel's highest circulation newspaper) June 15, 2003: "Romania: We had no Holocaust. [In fact] Half of country's Jews perished"
2. "Israeli Holocaust memorial criticizes Romania's insistence it had no role in genocide" (AP, June 15, 2003)
3. "Rome Imam suspended after praising suicide bombers" (Reuters, June 13)
4. "Imam who called for "destruction of Islam's enemies" removed from Rome mosque" (AP, Rome, June 14, 2003)
5. "Italy's Jews wait for royal apology" (Observer (UK), May 18, 2003)
6. "Poland to fund 25% of Jewish museum in Warsaw Ghetto" (Jerusalem Post, June 16, 2003)
7. "Unwelcome Jews" (AP, Vienna, June 15, 2003)


“AN OLD BLOKE... [WITH] A NUMBER ON HIS ARM”

[Note by Tom Gross]

While some outright deny the Holocaust, and others refuse to apologize for it, also disturbing is the casual way in which others are beginning to refer to it. For example, The Guardian (UK) Weekend Guide (page 3, June 14, 2003) refers to an "old bloke... [with] a number on his arm... [who] used to be a prisoner of war". The Guardian Guide failed to say he was in fact Leon Greenman, Holocaust survivor number 98288 and author of "An Englishman in Auschwitz". The newspaper has since apologized.

I attach 7 articles about Jewish and Israel-related News from Romania, Italy, Poland and Austria, with summaries first:

1. Headline in Yediot Ahronot (Israel's highest circulation newspaper) June 15, 2003: "Romania: We had no Holocaust. [In fact] Half of country's Jews perished."

"Romania denies Holocaust," (Daily Telegraph (UK), June 15, 2003). "The Romanian government issued a blunt denial yesterday that the Holocaust hit the country during the Second World War... The statement, issued by the Public Information Ministry, startled Jewish leaders in Romania, where 250,000 Jews were killed or deported to concentration camps under the rule of Marshal Ion Antonescu. "We firmly claim that within the borders of Romania between 1940 and 1945 there was no Holocaust," the ministry said. Historians have documented numerous accounts detailing the deportation and execution of Jews in Romania. Most died in camps in the former Soviet Union. But several pogroms spilled Jewish blood on Romanian soil."

“ROMANIA WAS THE ONLY ALLY OF GERMANY THAT HAD ITS OWN PLAN OF DESTRUCTION”

2. "Israeli Holocaust memorial criticizes Romania's insistence it had no role in genocide" (Associated Press, June 15, 2003). Yad Vashem rejected the Romanian government's assertion that "there was no Holocaust inside the Romanian borders," saying that hundreds of thousands of Romania Jews were killed in World War II. A leading Israeli expert on the Holocaust in Romania, Jean Ancel, said that of the 760,000 Jews who once lived in Romanian-controlled territories during World War II, 420,000 were killed. Documents discovered by Ancel also show that the Romanian government was directly involved in the extermination. "Romania was the only ally of Germany that had its own plan of destruction and used its own army to exterminate Jews," said Ancel, charging that some of the crimes were even more savage and more barbaric than those committed by the Germans. Today, about 6,000 Jews live in Romania.

3. "Rome Imam suspended after praising suicide bombers" (Reuters, June 13, 2003 ). Italy's Muslim League suspended the imam of Rome's main mosque Friday after he praised Palestinian suicide bombers at Friday prayers and called on Allah to "annihilate the enemies of Islam." Mahmoud Ibrahim Moussa, an Egyptian national, made the declarations in his sermon at prayers last Friday, causing a storm of protest that led to his ousting a week later. Interior Minister Giuseppe Pisanu called a few days after the sermon for Italian mosques to be "freed from advocates of violence, recruiters for holy wars and agents of foreign interests in Italy."

4. "Imam who called for "destruction of Islam's enemies" removed from Rome mosque" (Associated Press, Rome, June 14, 2003). "The main mosque in Rome has suspended its imam, a week after he delivered a sermon praising Palestinian fighters and calling for the destruction of Islam's enemies, officials said Saturday. The decision to remove Abdel-Samie Mahmoud Ibrahim Moussa capped a week of debate about the sermon, which was delivered during Friday prayers June 6 and published, in part, on the front page of the Rome daily La Repubblica a day later. Jewish groups including the Simon Wiesenthal Center urged the imam be replaced and expressed concern for the safety of Italy's Jewish community."

5. "Italy's Jews wait for royal apology" (The Observer (UK), May 18, 2003). "It was a rocky start for what was intended as a romantic trip down memory lane for Italy's exiled royal family, the Savoys, who returned to Rome last week to meet government officials, only to be greeted by angry Italian Jews still waiting for an apology for the royals' anti-Semitic leanings during the Second World War. Some five years ago, Victor Emmanuel made headlines when he said in an interview that the race laws were 'not so bad'."

6. "Poland to fund 25% of Jewish museum in Warsaw Ghetto" (The Jerusalem Post, June 16, 2003). "The Polish Government has announced its willingness to fund a quarter of the costs of the establishment of a Museum of the History of Polish Jews, giving a huge boost to the project, the museum's project director, Jerzy Halbersztadt said. The state of the art, $63 million museum, which aims to present a millennium of vibrant Jewish culture in Poland, is slated to be built on the grounds of the now-destroyed Warsaw Ghetto. Construction of the project, which will be designed by the noted American architect Frank Gehry, is scheduled to begin next year, with the museum likely to open its doors withing five years."

7. "Unwelcome Jews" (Associated Press, Vienna, June 15, 2003). "When Michael Siw's parents returned to war-battered Vienna in 1948, they were relieved to see their home had survived the city's heavy bombing by the Allies. But after a bruising and failed three-year court battle to recover their apartment and a family inheritance, including a factory, they went back to Israel. Depressed and disgusted by crude anti-Semitism and humiliated by officials and neighbors alike, they never returned. 'When they saw my parents, one of the occupants yelled: 'Jesus Christ! You haven't been gassed?'' Thousands of other Holocaust survivors met with similar resistance in futile attempts to reclaim ownership of property plundered during World War II. Some 65,000 Austrian Jews died in Nazi concentration camps, while 150,000 more fled the country or were deported after being forced to pay a 'flight tax.'"

-- Tom Gross


FULL ARTICLES

“THERE WAS NO HOLOCAUST”

Romania denies Holocaust
By Shamillia Sivathambu
Daily Telegraph (UK)
June 15, 2003

The Romanian government issued a blunt denial yesterday that the Holocaust hit the country during the Second World War, defying historical accounts of a campaign of anti-Semitic persecution orchestrated by its pro-Nazi wartime regime.

The statement, issued by the Public Information Ministry, startled Jewish leaders in Romania, where 250,000 Jews were killed or deported to concentration camps under the rule of Marshal Ion Antonescu.

"We firmly claim that within the borders of Romania between 1940 and 1945 there was no Holocaust," the ministry said.

The statement came a day after Romanian authorities released wartime archives to the Holocaust War Memorial Museum in Washington.

Jewish leaders questioned the assertion and criticised the Romanian government for failing to reflect the truth.

"You cannot say there weren't victims," said Ernest Neuman, a Jewish community leader in Timisoara.

Historians have documented numerous accounts detailing the deportation and execution of Jews in Romania. Most died in camps in the former Soviet Union. But several pogroms spilled Jewish blood on Romanian soil.

In June 1941 up to 12,000 people in the north-eastern city of Iasi are believed to have died as Romanian and German soldiers swept from house to house killing Jews.

 

ISRAELI HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL CRITICIZES ROMANIA’S INSISTENCE IT HAD NO ROLE IN GENOCIDE

Israeli Holocaust memorial criticizes Romania's insistence it had no role in genocide
The Associated Press
June 15, 2003

Israel's leading Holocaust research institute, Yad Vashem, on Sunday rejected the Romanian government's assertion that "there was no Holocaust inside the Romanian borders," saying that hundreds of thousands of Romania Jews were killed in World War II.

A leading Israeli expert on the Holocaust in Romania, Jean Ancel, said that of the 760,000 Jews who once lived in Romanian-controlled territories during World War II, 420,000 were killed. Yad Vashem recently published a two-volume book by Ancel on the subject.

Documents discovered by Ancel also show that the Romanian government was directly involved in the extermination. "Romania was the only ally of Germany that had its own plan of destruction and used its own army to exterminate Jews," said Ancel, charging that some of the crimes were even more savage and more barbaric than those committed by the Germans.

The German Nazis and their allies killed 6 million Jews during World War II, gassing many to death in extermination camps and shooting others after forcing them to dig their own mass graves. Ancel said that in the Ukraine, Romanian soldiers also burned Jews alive.

Romania has been criticized for its reluctance to come to grips with its role in the Holocaust. On Thursday, the government signed an agreement allowing the Washington-based Holocaust Memorial Museum to study Romanian archives about the Holocaust.

Despite that agreement, the Romanian Ministry of Public Information claimed that "within the borders of Romania between 1940 and 1945 there was no Holocaust."

Today, about 6,000 Jews live in Romania.

 

“THAT UNFORTUNATE SERMON DREW CRITICISM FROM ALL OVER THE PLACE”

Rome Imam Suspended After Praising Suicide Bombers
By Estelle Shirbon
Reuters
June 13, 2003

Italy's Muslim League suspended the imam of Rome's main mosque Friday after he praised Palestinian suicide bombers at Friday prayers and called on Allah to "annihilate the enemies of Islam."

Mahmoud Ibrahim Moussa, an Egyptian national, made the declarations in his sermon at prayers last Friday, causing a storm of protest that led to his ousting a week later.

"That unfortunate sermon drew criticism from all over the place, even from the Interior minister, so we decided it would be opportune to replace the imam," Mario Scialoja, head of the Italian branch of the Muslim World League, told Reuters.

Scialoja said Moussa was young and inexperienced and the sermon was a "sin of youth."

Interior Minister Giuseppe Pisanu called a few days after the sermon for Italian mosques to be "freed from advocates of violence, recruiters for holy wars and agents of foreign interests in Italy."

"We are working through dialogue and not through threats for the creation of an Italian Islam ... that will respect our laws and speak our language," Pisanu said.

Italian authorities have been sensitive about what goes on in mosques since the United States said Milan's Islamic Cultural Institute and mosque was the main European logistics base for al Qaeda, which Washington blames for the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks.

Leaders of the Milan mosque have denied the allegation.

Mosques have been the targets of close scrutiny and police raids in Italy as it tries to crack down on suspected Islamic militants and members of international terror groups.

Earlier this year, two imams from the cities of Cremona and Florence were arrested on suspicion of links to violent groups.

 

IMAM WHO CALLED FOR “DESTRUCTION OF ISLAM’S ENEMIES” REMOVED FROM ROME MOSQUE

Imam who called for “destruction of Islam's enemies” removed from Rome mosque
The Associated Press
June 14, 2003

The main mosque in Rome has suspended its imam, a week after he delivered a sermon praising Palestinian fighters and calling for the destruction of Islam's enemies, officials said Saturday.

The decision to remove Abdel-Samie Mahmoud Ibrahim Moussa capped a week of debate about the sermon, which was delivered during Friday prayers June 6 and published, in part, on the front page of the Rome daily La Repubblica a day later.

"Allah, let the Islamic fighters in Palestine, Chechnya and elsewhere be triumphant!" Repubblica quoted Moussa as saying in Arabic.

"Allah, destroy the houses of the enemies of Islam! Allah, help us crush the enemies of Islam! Allah ensure the victory of the nation of Islam!" the imam said in quotes that were confirmed Saturday by Mario Scialoja, head of the World Muslim League in Italy, which is affiliated with the mosque.

Italy's interior minister, Giuseppe Pisanu, expressed outrage at the imam's call, saying Italy's mosques "must be completely free of preachers of violence, recruiters for holy war and agents of foreign interests in Italy."

He called for the creation of an "Italian Islam" where its preachers speak Italian, not just Arabic, and respect Italian laws.

Jewish groups including the Simon Wiesenthal Center urged the imam be replaced and expressed concern for the safety of Italy's Jewish community following what it said was Moussa's "religious validation of terrorism."

On Friday, the administrative council of the Islamic Cultural Center, made up of the ambassadors of Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and other Muslim countries, decided to suspend him, Scialoja said Saturday.

"The Islamic Cultural Center is officially recognized by the Italian republic," he said in a telephone interview Saturday. "We cannot allow the mosque to be used to espouse violence the way the young imam did."

He said the majority of Rome's 90,000 Muslims are "quite peaceful and serene" and didn't share Moussa's message. It wasn't clear what would become of the 32-year-old Moussa, who is Egyptian and was named to head Rome's main mosque five months ago by Cairo's Al-Azhar university, Sunni Islam's highest authority.

Another Rome imam presided over Friday prayers this week but Scialoga said it would take some time for a permanent replacement to be named.

Scialoja said he didn't believe the incident would affect relations between the Italian government and Italy's Muslim community, particularly "because the Islamic Cultural Center acted very promptly" in removing Moussa.

"The center has regular contact with the Interior Ministry and we are on very good terms," he said, noting that the center often participates in Vatican-sponsored inter-religious conferences as well.

Pisanu has previously voiced concern about incitement coming from Italy's mosques and called for dialogue between the largely Catholic country and Islamic moderates.

The Simon Wiesenthal Center praised the decision to remove Moussa and urged the Italian government to "cut off all funding for any religious institution that aids and abets the cause of terrorists."

 

ITALY’S JEWS WAIT FOR ROYAL APOLOGY FROM THE SAVOYS

Italy's Jews wait for royal apology
By Sophie Arie
The Observer (UK)
May 18, 2003

It was a rocky start for what was intended as a romantic trip down memory lane for Italy's exiled royal family, the Savoys, who returned to Rome last week to meet government officials, only to be greeted by angry Italian Jews still waiting for an apology for the royals' anti-Semitic leanings during the Second World War. Rather than meeting cheering crowds, Prince Victor Emmanuel, exiled more than half a century ago with his father, the last Italian king, who supported the Fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, was hit by complaints that he and his family had made no attempt at reconciliation with the Jewish community on their first trip back to Rome.

'I'm not saying it was he who signed the racial laws in 1938. But, as a Savoy heir, Victor Emmanuel has never distanced himself from them,' the president of the Union of Italian Jewish Communities, Amos Luzzatto, said in an interview with Corriere della Sera newspaper.

Victor Emmanuel's father, Victor Emmanuel III, is remembered by many Italians for signing Mussolini's law that stripped Italy's Jews of basic rights, such as marrying other Italians, going to school or holding public office. Thousands of Jews were killed or deported to concentration camps.

Some five years ago, Victor Emmanuel made headlines when he said in an interview that the race laws were 'not so bad'. He has since tried to repair the damage saying that the laws had left 'an indelible stain' and were the 'darkest chapter' in his family's history.

But the Italian Jewish community was not satisfied and continued to demand a 'clear sign that they have rejected that period of history'. Jewish community representatives were unimpressed by the prince's last-minute faxed request to arrange a meeting in response to the complaints.

The prince, now in his 60s, was forced to leave Italy with his parents after Italians voted in a referendum in 1946 to exile male members of the royal family for supporting Mussolini. Last year, after many requests, the prince and his family were allowed to return from their home in Switzerland.

After causing some consternation for failing to make a courtesy visit to the government officials who oversaw the ending of their exile, the family met Italy's President, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, and the Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi, on Friday, in a symbolic gesture meant to show that they have no intention of reclaiming the throne. They fitted in a visit to a Second World War cemetery amid sumptuous dinners and visits to old haunts.

The prince has not endeared himself to Italians while in exile, dealing in arms on behalf of the Shah of Iran and being acquitted after accidentally shooting a German tourist on his yacht.

 

POLAND TO FUND 25% OF JEWISH MUSEUM IN WARSAW GHETTO

Poland to fund 25% of Jewish museum in Warsaw Ghetto
By Etgar Lefkovits
The Jerusalem Post
June 16, 2003

The Polish Government has announced its willingness to fund a quarter of the costs of the establishment of a Museum of the History of Polish Jews, giving a huge boost to the project, the museum's project director, Jerzy Halbersztadt said.

The state of the art, $63 million museum, which aims to present a millennium of vibrant Jewish culture in Poland, is slated to be built on the grounds of the now-destroyed Warsaw Ghetto.

Construction of the project, which will be designed by the noted American architect Frank Gehry, is scheduled to begin next year, with the museum likely to open its doors withing five years, Halbersztadt said.

The idea to create such a museum in Poland whose Jewish community now numbers less than 10,000 people in a country of 39 million gathered steam over the last several years following a period of national soul-searching that stemmed, in part, from the publication of a book that it was Poles, and not occupying Nazis, who murdered thousands of Jewish residents in the northeastern Polish village of Jedwabne during World War Two. The book's publication, and the large media and public response it provoked, comes at a time of increased Polish awareness of their mixed role in the Holocaust, and followed four decades of a virtual news and educational blackout on the subject in Poland during Communist rule.

The museum, which is being decried by some due to its lavish price tag, aims to serve the Polish public at large, as well the tens of thousands of Jewish visitors who come to Poland each year, the project director said.

"It is not coincidental that American and Israeli Jews comes to Poland to touch something that is important to their reality," Halbersztadt said in an interview in Warsaw, declaring that despite the Nazi extermination of 3 million Polish Jews during the Holocaust, "Polish-Jewish history is not a closed chapter."

Indeed, the Polish decision to fund 25% of the project with the remaining costs to be paid for by Jewish philanthropists comes at a time of blossoming Polish-American relations, and ever increasing Polish-Israeli ties, especially in the military sphere.

The government funding is also seen as an attempt to counter the image of Poland as an anti-Semitic country, a view largely reinforced by post-war pogroms, and the expulsion of tens of thousands of remaining Jews in 1968 during Communist rule. "Skin deep anti-Semitism is still tolerated anti-Semitism in Poland," noted Konstanty Gebert, publisher of the Polish Jewish monthly magazine Midrasz, adding that a recent newspaper poll found that 10% of Poles believe there are more than a million Jews living in Poland.

At the same time, during a period of financial difficulty in Poland, Gebert opined that the $63 million price tag for the lavishly-planned museum was just too high.

"I am not entirely convinced that this grandiose project is responsible," he said, suggesting that the funds could better be used to help Poland's present-day minuscule Jewish community.

The brainchild of the Polish museum which comes at a time when Yad Vashem is constructing its own new educational center in Jerusalem was the late Yeshayahu Weinberg, who served as a former director of the Diaspora Museum in Tel Aviv, and the first director general of the Holocaust Museum in Washington. When the Polish-born Weinberg approached Halbersztadt with his idea nearly a decade ago, the project seemed inconceivable, Halbersztadt conceded last week.

Planned museum exhibits include a recreation of the Warsaw Ghetto, a theater, and, in a country where Jewish symbols and traditions are only a remnant of things past, a virtual synagogue.

 

“JESUS CHRIST! YOU HAVEN’T BEEN GASSED?”

Unwelcome Jews
By Roland Prinz
The Associated Press
June 15, 2003

When Michael Siw's parents returned to war-battered Vienna in 1948, they were relieved to see their home had survived the city's heavy bombing by the Allies.

But after a bruising and failed three-year court battle to recover their apartment and a family inheritance, including a factory, they went back to Israel. Depressed and disgusted by crude anti-Semitism and humiliated by officials and neighbors alike, they never returned.

"They tried to get their property back," but found it occupied by new tenants, Siw said. "When they saw my parents, one of the occupants yelled: 'Jesus Christ! You haven't been gassed?'"

Thousands of other Holocaust survivors met with similar resistance in futile attempts to reclaim ownership of property plundered during World War II. More than a half century later, critics say, Austria still has a long way to go in making restitution and coming to grips with its Nazi past.

A new report by 160 historians and researchers criticizes the Alpine country's postwar governments for their unwillingness to indemnify Holocaust victims, saying Austria acted "often halfheartedly."

Serious restitution efforts were initiated only in the mid-1980s. Earlier attempts, hampered by a series of often ambiguous laws, "were all too often made on the basis of outside pressure, especially from the Western allies," said the 14,000-page government-commissioned report.

Anti-Semitism appears to be abating, with opinion polls saying such sentiments have dropped by half since 1991, when a quarter of survey participants expressed anti-Jewish feelings. Not even the far-right Freedom Party or its divisive former leader, Joerg Haider, have publicly challenged the restitution efforts.

Haider's anti-foreigner stance and praise of some of Adolf Hitler's policies led the European Union to temporarily impose sanctions on Austria after the Freedom Party joined the government in 2000. Israel withdrew its ambassador in protest and has yet to fill the post, even though Haider no longer leads the party and its influence has dwindled.

Looting of Jewish property started immediately after German troops entered Austria in March 1938, often to a warm welcome from Austrians. The Nazi catchword was "Arisierung" the "aryanization" of Jewish houses, apartments, land and artworks.

Some 65,000 Austrian Jews died in Nazi concentration camps, while 150,000 more fled the country or were deported after being forced to pay a "flight tax."

Only relatively recently have Austrians begun to publicly acknowledge their country's complicity.

The official pretext for authorities' shunning of responsibility was the Moscow Declaration of 1943, in which the Allies declared the country of Hitler's birth as the first victim of the Nazi dictatorship. In fact, a disproportionately large number of Austrians had been directly involved in the Nazi death machinery.

It wasn't until 1991 that Franz Vranitzky became the first Austrian chancellor to declare in parliament that Austrians were not only victims but also perpetrators of the Holocaust.

Jewish survivors returning to Austria in the immediate postwar years found their houses and apartments occupied, their bank accounts depleted and their commercial holdings in other people's hands. Few managed to recover their property.

Siw's family fled the Nazis in the 1930s for British-ruled Palestine, later to become Israel. He is now 60, a retired airline executive living in Tel Aviv.

Sitting in a Viennese coffeehouse, he described how his parents came back to their old apartment to be told by the people squatting there that they had nowhere else to go and wouldn't leave without a court order.

"They urged my parents to come again next day or later to pick up the furniture," Siw . "When the family returned the same afternoon, the apartment was empty except for a chandelier which couldn't be removed."

After battling in court for three years, the family was told that enhancements made to the property after they left far exceeded its original value and that they "should be happy for not being charged the difference," Siw said.

"That was when they packed up and left," he said.

Others fared little better.

Ruth Freyer, a 56-year-old Vienna resident, said her grandfather, who had been quite wealthy, managed to get his house back after waiting out the war in Israel. "But all his other property the valuables, chandeliers, silverware and paintings were all gone."

The thefts were an added insult. Before the Nazis let him leave Austria in 1939, she said, "Grandfather was forced to pay 28,000 reichsmarks" roughly $126,000 in today's terms.

Systematic restitution efforts didn't begin until 1985, when parliament approved a law obliging the state to auction off paintings, artworks and other unclaimed valuables. That auction wasn't held until 1996, when the sale of 8,000 items generated more than $14.5 million. Nearly 90 percent of the proceeds went to Jewish victims of the Holocaust.

A year earlier, the government started the Fund for Victims of National Socialism and began paying $6,000 to each of 33,000 Jewish survivors. Officials conceded the effort was mostly symbolic.

In January 2001, parliament adopted a $500 million package that included money for those payments plus two other restitution funds.

A $150 million fund was set up to pay Jewish survivors $7,000 each for lost tenancy rights, household goods and personal belongings. A $210 million fund compensates both survivors and their heirs for lost insurance policies, bank deposits, real estate, licenses and other rights.

Progress is also being made albeit slowly in confronting the broader issue of Austria's wartime past with books and exhibits paying tribute to Jewish and other victims of the Nazis.

In a 2001 poll, 61 percent of 1,010 youths said they thought it was "very important" to teach students about what happened in Austria under the Third Reich and 29 percent said it was "important." The survey had an error margin of three percentage points.

President Thomas Klestil, meeting recently with 80 former Austrian Jews in Vienna at the invitation of the Jewish Welcome Service, stressed such efforts.

He pointed to the 2001 inauguration of a memorial honoring victims of the Holocaust, the dedication of a new synagogue and a major education project in which students are reconstructing the biographies of all Austrian victims.

"The overwhelming majority of Austrians have the good will to draw the appropriate conclusions from the past," Klestil assured the visitors. "Our country will not shun confrontation with the past."

Siw said he is bitter over what happened to his family, yet he keeps returning to Vienna.

"One always tries to find one's childhood," he said.

"The city, its life and culture that's something that always pulls me back. Twice or three times a year I come to `fill up' on culture."

 

On the Net:

* Vienna's Jewish community:
http://www.ikg-wien.at/

* Holocaust victims' fund:
http://www.nationalfonds.org/

* Austrian historians' commission:
http://www.historikerkommission.gv.at/


All notes and summaries copyright © Tom Gross. All rights reserved.