The liberation of Belsen: The BBC didn’t believe their own reporter

April 18, 2005

CONTENTS:

1. The BBC didn't believe their own reporter
2. Pictures of naked bodies with missing hearts and livers
3. Anne Frank, one of many thousands
4. Leftist newspapers less interested
5. "Tears as day of deliverance from Belsen recalled" (Scotsman, April 18, 2005)
6. "At last we can talk of our secret horror" (Daily Telegraph, April 18, 2005)
7. "Survivors mark liberation of Nazi camps" (AP, April 18, 2005)
8. "When Belsen was liberated, the Holocaust came to Britain" (Times of London, April 16, 2005)

 



[Note by Tom Gross]

THE BBC DIDN'T BELIEVE THEIR OWN REPORTER

Sixty years ago tomorrow, millions of people around the world became aware for the first time of the full horror of the Holocaust: on April 19, 1945, BBC radio broadcast details of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.

But the BBC reporter on the scene, Richard Dimbleby, had actually compiled his report four days earlier on April 15, 1945, hours after he arrived at the camp with the British army unit which liberated Belsen.

His BBC bosses in London said they found it so hard to believe his report that for four days they refused to broadcast it.

Finally, on April 19, 1945, after Dimbleby – one of the BBC's leading correspondents – threatened to resign if the BBC didn't broadcast his account, the BBC broadcast it.

Dimbleby broke down five times while trying to record descriptions of the stench of decomposing flesh, the pyramids of starved and emaciated corpses, some still dying, others waiting to be buried, with arms and legs were like matchsticks, their bones poking through their skin.

PICTURES OF NAKED BODIES WITH MISSING HEARTS AND LIVERS

A few days later, British army film of soldiers bulldozing thousands of stick-like corpses into mass graves at the camp shocked the world and brought home the barbarity of the full Nazi regime for the first time. Some of the pictures showed naked bodies with missing hearts and livers, people alive with no teeth or hair. Until that stage of the war there had been no images of what had happened in the camps.

(Among the liberating British army soldiers was Chaim Herzog, later President of Israel.)

ANNE FRANK, ONE OF MANY THOUSANDS

The vast majority of the victims at Bergen-Belsen were Jews. They included well-known Holocaust victims such as Anne Frank and Simone Veil. In deference to the few orthodox survivors, services commemorating the 60th anniversary of the liberation were held not last Friday April 15, the Jewish Sabbath, but yesterday.

LEFTIST NEWSPAPERS LESS INTERESTED

As the (rightist) Daily Telegraph notes today: "Since that day 60 years ago, many in the West have preferred not to think about how a nation as apparently civilised as Germany could have come to treat human beings like this. It seemed more comfortable to dismiss Adolf Hitler and his followers as inhuman madmen – aberrations of history – than to accept that anything like the Holocaust could happen again. But all of history should warn us that it could happen again."

Many center-right newspapers have extensive coverage today, including front-page photos. But some left-leaning papers, such as the Independent (of London) and the New York Times-owned International Herald Tribune, make almost no reference today to the ceremonies at Belsen yesterday and carried no photos. It is probably not a coincidence that these are the papers that are routinely hostile to Israel.

For example, the Independent today has a little story without a photo at the foot of page 21, in contrast to rightist papers like the Daily Express which carries a top-of-the-page photo of flowers being left yesterday at a grave for Anne and Margot Frank.

And the International Herald Tribune publishes a huge, side-angled photo of Ariel Sharon in his Jerusalem office, looking particular sinister, next to their story today (which is only three sentences long) headlined "Camp survivors mark anniversary of release."

-- Tom Gross

 

SUMMARIES

SHAUL LADANY, SURVIVING HITLER AT BELSEN, ARAFAT AND ABBAS AT MUNICH

"Tears as day of deliverance from Belsen recalled" (By Allan Hall, in Belsen, The Scotsman, April 18, 2005)

On a hot spring day in 1945 British soldiers stumbled on a dark secret of the Third Reich amid a dense German forest... Six decades on, Belsen is a serene oasis of greenery and remembrance stones, the huts which contained the "sub-human" enemies of Nazism long ago vaporised by army flame-throwers... 150 survivors - including Poles, Czechs, Canadians, Israelis, Americans and Slavs - who made it back to the hell from which they were rescued 60 years ago.

They were people like white-haired Lilliane Eckstein, now 77, who lost 82 members of her family in the Holocaust. Her mother died at Belsen, while she contracted typhus and only just survived. "I didn't want to. I survived in a world where everyone I loved had gone," she said.

With tears streaming down her face, the former Czech schoolgirl, now a pensioner living in New York, added: "I came here because I owe it to my family, to those wonderful British soldiers, to the dead. I hate this place. But I have a duty to be here."

Ruth Turek, 75, a Polish Jewish survivor who lost her entire family in the camps and who also now lives in the US, said: "My sister was gassed at Treblinka, my mother in Auschwitz. But I lived to say I would not forget them, and I won't. I remember the awful stink of the place and people lying around and dying, dying, dying. There is never a day that I don't think about what was done here."

Another survivor was Shaul Ladany, 69, from Israel, who was a young boy when the British arrived. He said God had "shone twice on me in this life" - in 1972 he was a marathon walker with the Israeli Olympic team in Munich and narrowly missed being kidnapped with other athletes by Palestinian terrorists and killed.

He and his sister Marta, 64, walked hand in hand upon the fields where huts once stood with people more dead than alive crammed into them... "You know what I really remember?" said Mr Ladany. "I remember being so hungry that I was in pain and seeing wild tomatoes growing in the forest on the other side of the barbed wire. And that tormented me more than anything."

... Major Dick Williams, 84, one of the first soldiers in the camp, will be there today to honour the dead and his comrades from long ago. He said: "It was an evil, filthy place, a hell on Earth. I hope that the younger generation can understand to truly prevent another Belsen from ever being built on this Earth again."

 

SKELETONS WALKING

"At last we can talk of our secret horror" (By Hannah Cleaver in Bergen-Belsen, Daily Telegraph, April 18, 2005)

She was a Polish Jew who, along with countless others, had been sent to Bergen-Belsen to die. She was unconscious when British troops finally entered the gates and discovered the horror.

He was a British military policeman, told that he had been "volunteered" to help with the concentration camp, drawing up lists of the survivors and helping to bury the tens of thousands of dead.

But Renee and Charles Salt did not meet 60 years ago when the camp was liberated. Soon after they did, a few years later, they married. "I was pleased that he had seen what I had seen," Mrs Salt, 76, said yesterday. "It meant that he could understand."

Yet this understanding took the form of an unspoken contract between the two not to talk about what they experienced; an agreement that remained in force for half a century. "It was too much, we could not talk about it," she said. "Of course we knew where we had both been during the war, but we never really talked about it."

Mrs Salt's journey to Bergen-Belsen took her from her home town of Zdunsk Vola, near Lodz in Poland, through ghettoes and even to Auschwitz. Even before reaching her destination, and still in her teens, she had been so kicked, beaten, starved and humiliated that there was little more to do but wait for death.

"By 1945 I had lost just about everything," she said. "Family, home, money, education, country, hair, even my teeth - it had all been taken away from me. I was left a skeleton with nothing."

Yet having become almost inured to the sight of death, the pain of beatings and the constant fear that a casual decision by a stranger might end her life, Renee was shocked when she got off the train at Bergen-Belsen.

"The scene that met our eyes was impossible to describe. Here we saw skeletons walking. Their arms and legs were like matchsticks, their bones poking through their poor skin.

"The bodies had their eyes open, they were all over the place, you couldn't tell who was who. Even in Auschwitz all that time there was a grain of hope. When we came to Belsen, I was just praying to die quickly" ...

 

MEDICAL EXPERIMENTATION AT RAVENSBRUECK

"Survivors Mark Liberation of Nazi Camps" (By Matt Surman, The Associated Press, April 18, 2005)

Hundreds of survivors of Nazi concentration camps on Sunday marked the liberation 60 years ago of three of the most notorious camps in the Third Reich's vast system: Ravensbrueck, Sachsenhausen and Bergen-Belsen.

Judith Sherman, 75, brought her two sons and grandchildren to Ravensbrueck so she could tell them the story of her struggle to survive. "I think of Ravensbrueck every time I feel hungry. I think of Ravensbrueck every time I feel cold," said Sherman, of Cranbury, N.J. "Every time my grandchildren cry, I think of Ravensbrueck."

Sherman was among 300 survivors from around the world who attended the ceremony at Ravensbrueck, 60 miles north of Berlin near the town of Fuerstenberg, which gained infamy as the Nazis' camp for female prisoners, though some men also were held there.

... From 1939 to 1945, at least 132,000 women and children and 20,000 men were deported to Ravensbrueck, where tens of thousands died from hunger, disease, exhaustion or medical experiments. Six thousand prisoners were killed in a gas chamber built at the end of 1944…

 

"THAT WAS THE DAY I REALISED THE WORLD WAS NOT A NICE PLACE"

"When Belsen was liberated, the Holocaust came to Britain" (By Roger Boyes in Belsen, The Times (of London), April 16, 2005)

Ruth Turek blinked back tears in Belsen concentration camp yesterday and recalled the moment, 60 years ago, that the British Army moved in. "It was funny, just like today and the soldiers seem to come like angels," she said.

The day that the British saved the life of the 17-year-old Polish Jew was also the day that the Holocaust came home to Britain. The piles of corpses; the sweet stench of decaying flesh; the dazed, emaciated inmates: they became almost instantly part of the iconography of war crimes.

... Other camps had been liberated by April 15, but did not have such a raw impact on Britain. "For me as a British schoolboy in the 1970s, it was Belsen rather than Auschwitz which represented the Holocaust," said the historian Stephen Smith [a subscriber to this email list], who went on to head the Beth Shalom Holocaust Centre in Nottingham. "Not just because of the horrific skeletal pictures, but also because it was so connected to my own country."

The shock permeated first through the accounts of liberating soldiers, members of the Second Army who had seen some savage fighting. Most of the gritty photographs from the first days of liberation, as the British Army tried to make sense of the chaotic scenes – much of the camp seemed to be dying of typhoid fever – were taken by soldiers.

"And they didn't go back to barrack rooms cut off from the world; they returned to their homes in Glasgow, Manchester and Telford," Dr Smith said. "That sent a powerful word-of-mouth message and most of the Tommies were saying: 'Now I know what we were fighting for.'"

... "Soon after taking over at the Holocaust centre," Dr Smith said, "I was called to the home of an old soldier who said he needed to talk about Belsen after decades of silence. 'I feel almost guilty about it,' he said, 'so ashamed.'"

... Lieutenant-Colonel Taylor, turned to the camp commander, Josef Kramer and spat to an interpreter: "Tell him that when he hangs I hope he hangs slowly."

Correspondents poured into the camp. The Holocaust was on British kitchen tables. Army film units, with Alfred Hitchcock's involvement, produced stomach-curdling footage. The British at home, though battered, had no previous idea of how it looked to die of hunger. Some of the pictures emerging showed naked bodies with missing hearts and livers, clearly cannibalised.

... Although later Auschwitz was to take the central position in the narrative of the Holocaust, it was Belsen that provided the most immediate, the most graphic account. "When I talk to ordinary Britons who were 10 or 8 at the time of Belsen," Dr Smith said, "they will often tell me: 'That was the day I grew up and realised the world was not a nice place.'" ...



FULL ARTICLES

TEARS AS DAY OF DELIVERANCE FROM BELSEN RECALLED

Tears as day of deliverance from Belsen recalled
By Allan Hall at Belsen
The Scotsman
April 18, 2005

news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=403582005

On a hot spring day in 1945 – a day much like yesterday – British soldiers stumbled on a dark secret of the Third Reich amid a dense German forest.

Those who survived the horrors of the Belsen concentration camp to welcome the "angels in khaki" yesterday returned to the place where 70,000 people died.

This time there was no stench of decomposing flesh, no pyramids of emaciated corpses waiting to be buried.

Six decades on, Belsen is a serene oasis of greenery and remembrance stones, the huts which contained the "sub-human" enemies of Nazism long ago vaporised by army flame-throwers.

It was said that before Belsen was liberated many Britons did not know what they were fighting for. After its discovery no-one was in any doubt as to what they were fighting against.

It was an international brigade of some 150 survivors – including Poles, Czechs, Canadians, Israelis, Americans and Slavs – who made it back to the hell from which they were rescued 60 years ago.

They were people like white-haired Lilliane Eckstein, now 77, who lost 82 members of her family in the Holocaust. Her mother died at Belsen, while she contracted typhus and only just survived.

"I didn't want to. I survived in a world where everyone I loved had gone," she said.

With tears streaming down her face, the former Czech schoolgirl, now a pensioner living in New York, added: "I came here because I owe it to my family, to those wonderful British soldiers, to the dead. I hate this place. But I have a duty to be here."

Ruth Turek, 75, a Polish survivor who lost her entire family in the camps and who also now lives in the US, said: "They were our angels in khaki, the angels of the British army.

"They gave people food and some died because they were too weak to have such nourishment. But they rescued people like me, these healthy, happy- faced soldiers who were so very different from the brutal guards who abused us. My sister was gassed at Treblinka, my mother in Auschwitz. But I lived to say I would not forget them, and I won't. I remember the awful stink of the place and people lying around and dying, dying, dying. There is never a day that I don’t think about what was done here."

Another survivor was Shaul Ladany, 69, from Israel, who was a young boy when the British arrived.

He said God had "shone twice on me in this life" – in 1972 he was a marathon walker with the Israeli Olympic team in Munich and narrowly missed being kidnapped with other athletes by Palestinian terrorists and killed.

He and his sister Marta, 64, walked hand in hand upon the fields where huts once stood with people more dead than alive crammed into them.

They walked past the mass graves, one of them containing the remains of Anne Frank, the Jewish girl whose diary of her years in hiding became a beacon of hope for humanity in the years after the war.

"You know what I really remember?" said Mr Ladany. "I remember being so hungry that I was in pain and seeing wild tomatoes growing in the forest on the other side of the barbed wire. And that tormented me more than anything."

Among the Britons who arrived last night was Renee Salt. Her husband Charles was a military policeman involved in the liberation of Belsen whom she met much later in Paris.

Major Dick Williams, 84, one of the first soldiers in the camp, will be there today to honour the dead and his comrades from long ago.

He said: "It was an evil, filthy place, a hell on Earth. I hope that the younger generation can understand to truly prevent another Belsen from ever being built on this Earth again."

 

'AT LAST WE CAN TALK OF OUR SECRET HORROR'

'At last we can talk of our secret horror'
By Hannah Cleaver in Bergen-Belsen
The Daily Telegraph
April 18, 2005

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/04/18/wbels118.xml&sSheet=/news/2005/04/18/ixhome.html

She was a Polish Jew who, along with countless others, had been sent to Bergen-Belsen to die. She was unconscious when British troops finally entered the gates and discovered the horror.

He was a British military policeman, told that he had been "volunteered" to help with the concentration camp, drawing up lists of the survivors and helping to bury the tens of thousands of dead.

But Renee and Charles Salt did not meet 60 years ago when the camp was liberated. Soon after they did, a few years later, they married.

"I was pleased that he had seen what I had seen," Mrs Salt, 76, said yesterday. "It meant that he could understand."

Yet this understanding took the form of an unspoken contract between the two not to talk about what they experienced; an agreement that remained in force for half a century.

"It was too much, we could not talk about it," she said. "Of course we knew where we had both been during the war, but we never really talked about it."

Mrs Salt's journey to Bergen-Belsen took her from her home town of Zdunsk Vola, near Lodz in Poland, through ghettoes and even to Auschwitz. Even before reaching her destination, and still in her teens, she had been so kicked, beaten, starved and humiliated that there was little more to do but wait for death.

"By 1945 I had lost just about everything," she said. "Family, home, money, education, country, hair, even my teeth – it had all been taken away from me. I was left a skeleton with nothing."

Yet having become almost inured to the sight of death, the pain of beatings and the constant fear that a casual decision by a stranger might end her life, Renee was shocked when she got off the train at Bergen-Belsen.

"The scene that met our eyes was impossible to describe. Here we saw skeletons walking. Their arms and legs were like matchsticks, their bones poking through their poor skin.

"The bodies had their eyes open, they were all over the place, you couldn't tell who was who.

"Even in Auschwitz all that time there was a grain of hope. When we came to Belsen, I was just praying to die quickly."

Having tracked down her dying mother in the same camp, the then 16-year-old collapsed into feverish unconsciousness and missed the next 10 days – and the arrival of the British, among them her future husband.

"In the main camp there were just hundreds and thousands of bodies," said Mr Salt. "We got German civilians to dig trenches and we had to bury the bodies, but we also had to feed the survivors. What do you do?

"Some people were so desperate that they would find a tin or a piece of glass and open a body to eat the offal." Now 87, Mr Salt suffers from the gait and frailty of an old man and the weekend trip to Belsen from London was a long and tiring one for both him and his wife.

There were 23,200 bodies for Mr Salt and his fellow soldiers to deal with, as well as thousands of survivors, 13,000 of which were so starved and sick that they died soon after. Huge ditches were dug around the camp and up to 5,000 bodies were buried in each one.

Renee woke up 10 days after liberation in a delousing room. As she came to, someone was killing the fat black lice that had covered her since she entered Belsen.

"They gave me a quarter of a slice of bread with a teaspoon of stewed apple on it," she said. "That was the first thing I ate."

Two years later, having found the surviving two aunts out of 12 aunts and uncles in her family and – like many other survivors – suffered a nervous breakdown, she turned her back on Poland and moved to Paris.

There she met and fell in love with Charles, who decided to take Renee to London, where he went on to set up a delicatessen.

"We hadn't seen each other at Bergen-Belsen but we talked briefly about where we had been and realised we had been in the same place," said Mrs Salt.

She could not even tell her son and daughter, and only recently brought up the subject with her grandchildren. "For 50 years we didn't talk about it," she said. "We saw things on the television and then started to talk, putting it together piece by piece."

Mr Salt said yesterday: "It was so different when I was first here; there were huts all over the place. Now there is just grass. What they have done here with the memorial is great."

 

SURVIVORS MARK LIBERATION OF NAZI CAMPS

Survivors Mark Liberation of Nazi Camps
By Matt Surman
The Associated Press
The Washington Post
April 18, 2005

www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A61461-2005Apr17.html

Hundreds of survivors of Nazi concentration camps on Sunday marked the liberation 60 years ago of three of the most notorious camps in the Third Reich's vast system: Ravensbrueck, Sachsenhausen and Bergen-Belsen.

Judith Sherman, 75, brought her two sons and grandchildren to Ravensbrueck so she could tell them the story of her struggle to survive.

"I think of Ravensbrueck every time I feel hungry. I think of Ravensbrueck every time I feel cold," said Sherman, of Cranbury, N.J. "Every time my grandchildren cry, I think of Ravensbrueck."

Sherman was among 300 survivors from around the world who attended the ceremony at Ravensbrueck, 60 miles north of Berlin near the town of Fuerstenberg, which gained infamy as the Nazis' camp for female prisoners, though some men also were held there.

Pierette Pierrot, a French resistance fighter, was pregnant when she was captured and imprisoned by the Nazis in 1944. Pierrot, 88, said she was able to hide her pregnancy from the Nazis with her baggy prison clothes and the help of others.

"There was a lot of friendship ... and only through that could I keep my child," Pierrot said.

When her son, Guy, was born March 11, 1945, in the camp, she had to lean even more on others – including a German camp nurse who knew her secret.

A month later, as the Third Reich crumbled, the SS allowed the Red Cross to evacuate 7,500 prisoners to Sweden.

Pierrot was one of those chosen to go and remembers bundling her son up in rags and stuffing him under a seat to smuggle him out with her. "I only really felt saved when we made it to Denmark," said Pierrot, whose son came with her for the ceremonies.

From 1939 to 1945, at least 132,000 women and children and 20,000 men were deported to Ravensbrueck, where tens of thousands died from hunger, disease, exhaustion or medical experiments. Six thousand prisoners were killed in a gas chamber built at the end of 1944.

Sachsenhausen, near Berlin, was liberated on April 22, 1945, by the Soviet army. One of the first Nazi concentration camps, it was initially meant mainly for political prisoners.

Bergen-Belsen, near Hanover, had by 1945 become a holding pen for the weak and sick. It was liberated on April 15, 1945.

 

WHEN BELSEN WAS LIBERATED, THE HOLOCAUST CAME TO BRITAIN

When Belsen was liberated, the Holocaust came to Britain
By Roger Boyes In Belsen, Northern Germany
The Times (of London)
April 16, 2005

www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,3-1571178,00.html

Ruth Turek blinked back tears in Belsen concentration camp yesterday and recalled the moment, 60 years ago, that the British Army moved in. "It was funny, just like today and the soldiers seem to come like angels," she said.

The day that the British saved the life of the 17-year-old Polish Jew was also the day that the Holocaust came home to Britain. The piles of corpses; the sweet stench of decaying flesh; the dazed, emaciated inmates: they became almost instantly part of the icon- ography of war crimes. Richard Dimbleby, the BBC reporter on the scene, broke down five times trying to record his account of the liberated camp.

The BBC demanded confirmation from other sources. Dimbleby threatened to resign. Eventually, on April 19, four days after the arrival of the troops, his account stunned Britain. "Behind the huts, two youths and two girls who had found a morsel of food were sitting together on the grass in picnic fashion, sharing it. They were not six feet from a pile of decomposing bodies."

Other camps had been liberated by April 15, but did not have such a raw impact on Britain. "For me as a British schoolboy in the 1970s, it was Belsen rather than Auschwitz which represented the Holocaust," said the historian Stephen Smith, who went on to head the Beth Shalom Holocaust Centre in Nottingham. "Not just because of the horrific skeletal pictures, but also because it was so connected to my own country." The shock permeated first through the accounts of liberating soldiers, members of the Second Army who had seen some savage fighting. Most of the gritty photographs from the first days of liberation, as the British Army tried to make sense of the chaotic scenes – much of the camp seemed to be dying of typhoid fever – were taken by soldiers.

"And they didn’t go back to barrack rooms cut off from the world; they returned to their homes in Glasgow, Manchester and Telford," Dr Smith said. "That sent a powerful word-of-mouth message and most of the Tommies were saying: 'Now I know what we were fighting for.' "

Most of the liberators are now too old to travel. Charles Salt, 84 – a military policeman who helped to arrest the vicious camp warden Irma Grese – travelled to the camp yesterday with his wife, Renee, who had been an inmate. Belsen brought them together.

"Soon after taking over at the Holocaust centre," Dr Smith said, "I was called to the home of an old soldier who said he needed to talk about Belsen after decades of silence. 'I feel almost guilty about it,' he said, 'so ashamed.' "

Frank Chapman, who drove the bulldozer that piled the naked corpses into communal graves, remained scarred by his camp experience until his death 18 months ago.

The liberation of Belsen was the first real wartime media event in the modern sense. The first correspondent on the ground was John D'Arcy- Dawson, the Sunday Times reporter, who arrived early enough to see the camp commander, Josef Kramer, led half-naked past his former inmates. The reporter watched as the commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Taylor, turned to Kramer and spat to an interpreter: "Tell him that when he hangs I hope he hangs slowly." British officers did not usually talk like that in the presence of reporters.

Kramer did, indeed, hang – some 70,000 inmates had died because of his neglect, incompetence or cruelty – and the British-led trials of the Belsen staff were a revelation for the British public. It marked the beginning of an intense period of anti-German sentiment in Britain.

Correspondents poured into the camp. The Holocaust was on British kitchen tables. Army film units, with Alfred Hitchcock's involvement, produced stomach-curdling footage. The British at home, though battered, had no previous idea of how it looked to die of hunger. Some of the pictures emerging showed naked bodies with missing hearts and livers, clearly cannibalised.

Although later Auschwitz was to take the central position in the narrative of the Holocaust, it was Belsen that provided the most immediate, the most graphic account. "When I talk to ordinary Britons who were 10 or 8 at the time of Belsen," Dr Smith said, "they will often tell me: 'That was the day I grew up and realised the world was not a nice place.'"

Anne Frank, the Dutch schoolgirl, was the most prominent victim of Belsen, but the liberators and their accompanying press corps would also rise to prominence, ensuring that Belsen continued to shape the consciousness of a generation.

Among the liberating soldiers was Chaim Herzog, later President of Israel. Among the BBC team was Patrick Gordon Walker, later a Member of Parliament and Foreign Secretary. Anita Lasker-Wallfisch, a cellist who had played for her life in the Auschwitz camp orchestra, ran unsteadily towards Gordon Walker after the liberation and gave an emotional interview to the BBC.

"It was repeated several times and showed the people in England that it was possible to be Jewish in Germany and still be alive," she says.

All notes and summaries copyright © Tom Gross. All rights reserved.